Tunnel analysis is available in 2D and 3D. The complete set of isoparametric elements can be used. A 2D mesh can automatically be extruded to a 3D mesh with varying element fineness and different material layers in extrude direction; a phased analysis can be used with changing material laws in regions, e.g. change of soil properties to concrete properties in the tunnel lining; regions can be excavated or pressed; phreatic levels can be lowered to model groundwater leverage; coupled stress - groundwater analysis can model consolidation effects. A complete set of parallel functionality in Tochnog Professional allows for fast calculation times on modern multi-core computer platforms.
The pictures respectively show the vertical displacements, vertical stress and plasticity zones in this benchmark calculation of a tunnel without lining.